思維可視化在初中英語習題講評中的應用教育分析--以南師大蘇州實驗學校為例

來源: www.126151.tw 發布時間:2020-04-13 論文字數:30855字
論文編號: sb2020041310482330418 論文語言:English 論文類型:碩士畢業論文
本文是一篇教育論文,一方面,雖然英語習題評價課是教師了解學生掌握知識、反思自身教學行為的重要手段,但許多教師對其認識不足。在許多教師看來,這是最容易上的課,也是最難上的課
本文是一篇教育論文,一方面,雖然英語習題評價課是教師了解學生掌握知識、反思自身教學行為的重要手段,但許多教師對其認識不足。在許多教師看來,這是最容易上的課,也是最難上的課。他們認為最容易的原因是,在他們看來,只要他們能在課前毫無困難地完成練習,上這種課是小菜一碟。尤其是初中的習題,無論是剛畢業的新手老師還是經驗豐富的老老師,那些習題都是那么的簡單。之所以被認為最不容易,是因為在公開課上很難看到老師選擇習題評價的班級類型。他們不選擇的原因有:一是習題評價過程難以創新;二是評價過程中不易組織全班的英語教學,特別是一些語法知識點的講解。即使是老師也能做到,大多數學生對老師的理解都有困難;第三,習題評價的課堂氣氛往往比其他類型的課堂更為沉悶。

Chapter One Introduction

1.1 Research Background
1.1.1 The Requirements of the New Curriculum Standard
In the 2017 edition of The Compulsory Education English Curriculum Standard formulated by the Ministry of Education, the nature of the course is described as follows: “The English curriculum in the compulsory education stage has the dual nature of instrumentality and humanism. As far as instrumentality is concerned, English curriculum undertakes the task of cultivating students’ basic English  literacy  and  developing  students’  thinking  ability,  that  is,  students  need  to  master  basic English  language  knowledge  and  develop  basic  English  listening,  speaking,  reading  and  writing skills through English courses. Students should initially form the ability to communicate with others in English and the development of thinking ability should be further promoted, which can lay the foundation for the future to continue to learn English and learn other relevant scientific and cultural knowledge  in  English”.  And  the  goal  for  junior  high  school  students  is  that  students  should  be educated to be able to cooperate with others, solve problems, report results, complete the learning task  together,  evaluate  their  own  learning,  summarize  the  learning  methods  and  use  a  variety  of educational  resources  for  learning.  Thus  it  can  be  seen  that  paying  attention  to  the  cultivation  of students’ thinking quality and learning ability should be the important goal of  current education. Otherwise, quality education can only be an empty talk, and the inefficient practices which mainly rely  on  too  much  mechanical  repeated  training  in  English  evaluation  lessons  can  never  train  the talents needed by the society.
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1.2 Significance of the Research
A lot of research has shown that the important function of thinking visualization technology is to  turn  implicit,  fuzzy  and  scattered  “knowledge  points”  into  explicit,  clear  and  systematic “knowledge network”. So theoretically speaking, if a feasible way to apply thinking visualization to English  exercises  evaluation  lessons  in  junior  high  schools  can  be  found  out,  it  is  bound  to  be helpful  to  develop  students’ thinking  ability and improve students’ problem-solving ability. And this  is  in  agreement  with  the  2017  edition  of  The  Compulsory  Education  English  Curriculum Standard  formulated  by  the  Ministry  of  Education.  And  it  is  clearly  mentioned  that  the  goal  for junior high school students is “to be able to cooperate with others, solve problems and report results, complete  the  learning  task  together,  evaluate  their  own learning,  summarize  the  learning methods and use a variety of educational resources for learning”. Thus it can be seen that paying attention to the cultivation of students’ thinking quality and learning ability should be of great importance to current education. Otherwise, quality education or developing students’ English core competencies can only be an empty talk. 
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Chapter Two Literature Review

2.1 Major Concepts
2.1.1 Thinking Visualization
Firstly, thinking visualization refers to the process of presenting the original invisible thinking structure, thinking path and method in the way of diagram or graphic combination, so that it can be clearly seen. Popularly speaking, it is the process of “drawing” the thinking in the brain(Z.Y. Liu 5). Because the brain is very sensitive to drawings or maps, visualized thinking is easier to understand and  remember.  Thinking  visualization  makes  use  of  this  nature  of  the  brain  to  realize  the transmission of thinking information and the improvement of processing efficiency.
The graphic technology of thinking visualization mainly includes two types: one is the graphic method of thinking map, model diagram, flow chart, concept diagram, fishbone diagram, problem tree  and  so  on,  and  the  other  is  the  software  that  generates  the  diagram.  The  main  ones  are Mindmanager, Mindmapper, Xmind, Inmindmap, FreeMind, Dropmind and so on. 
 In this thesis, taking the specific situation of junior high school students into consideration, the author first used software to make a simple model and then let the students imitate in the form of manual drawing. Besides, students can also create some other visual ways to show how they think with the help of their imagination on condition that it is reasonable and visible.
Secondly, thinking visualization teaching strategy refers to a teaching strategy which takes the development  of  students’  thinking  ability  as  the  teaching  focus,  and  makes  use  of  thinking visualization as a means of systematic thinking training and effective teaching practice. Grabe,W.,? Kaplan, R. B. pointed out that teachers can be taught to shift focus from “knowledge” to “thinking” by using thinking visualization tools, thus leading students to learn to think, so as to continuously improve students’ thinking ability and achieve teaching effectiveness(qtd.in Ding Weilan2).
The  main  purpose  of  this  study  is  to  try  applying  thinking  visualization  to  English  exercises evaluation lessons in junior high schools, and to explore whether there is a feasible way in practice and whether the application can have a positive effect on students’ English learning.
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2.2 Studies on Thinking Visualization at Home and Abroad
2.2.1 Studies on Thinking Visualization Abroad
The  research  on  thinking  visualization  in  foreign  countries  began  with  mind  map.  Mind  map was a graphic and textual note-taking form based on radioactive thinking invented by Tony Bozan, an  Englishman  in  the  1970s.  At  first,  it  was  used  to  help  “students  with  learning  disabilities” overcome learning disabilities, but later it was mainly used by the industrial and commercial sector especially  in  the  field  of  corporate  training,  to  enhance  the  learning  efficiency  and  innovative thinking  ability  of  individuals  and  organizations(Z.Y.  Liu  5).  The  number  of  relevant  articles searched on the foreign language journal website Elsevier with the term “visual thinking” in titles, abstracts or keywords in the past five years has been increasing on the whole. There are 42 articles in 2015, 36 in 2016, 38 in 2017 and 52 in 2018 respectively. There have been seven so far in 2019. Thus it can be seen obviously that the related research on thinking visualization in foreign countries is on the rise on the whole. Zhao Huichen and Wang Yue argue that their research mainly focuses on the “tools” and “methods” of thinking visualization. In terms of tools: psychologist Novak put forward  the  concept  of  map  technology;  Budd.J.W  once  used  mind  maps  as  a  tool  for  classroom exercises.  Japanese  management  master  Ishikawa  invented  causality  map  and  so  on.  In  terms  of methods:  Dr. Edward  de  Bono  of  the  University of  Cambridge  in  the  United  Kingdom  developed the “de Bono thinking training system”; Dr. Qitian of Japan carried out right brain education based on  the  development  of  image  memory  function,  and  the  right  brain  education  based  on  the development of image memory function was carried out by Dr. Swiss scholars Ralph Lengler and Martin  Eppler  constructed  the  “Visualization  method  Periodic Table”  in  2005  and  analyzed  two forms of thinking in visual learning “convergent thinking” and “divergent thinking”(Z?W 10-11).
Figure5.3 Presentation of teaching procedures in class
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Chapter Three Theoretical Foundation ..................................... 11
3.1 Theory of Brain Science ................................. 11
3.2 Theory of Deep Learning .............................. 11
Chapter Four Research Methodology ...................................... 13
4.1 Research Questions ............................ 13
4.2 Research Methods ................................... 13
Chapter Five Results and Discussions .......................... 21
5.1 Analysis of the Results of Teachers’ Interviews....................... 21
5.2 Exploration of Thinking Visualization in English Exercises evaluation lessons ................ 24

Chapter Five Results and Discussions

5.1 Analysis of the Results of Teachers’ Interviews
The  interview  with  the  teachers  was  scheduled  to  be  conducted  in  September,  2018  and  the purpose was to learn about the current teaching situation and existing problems of English exercises evaluation lessons in different junior high schools. A total of 9 teachers were interviewed, including 3 from the author’s school and 6 from other schools. 
Group  interview  was  made  with  the  three  teachers  from  Nanjing  Normal  University  Suzhou Experimental  School  at  the  beginning  of  the  study  on  Tuesday  afternoon,  when  English  teaching and researching activities are arranged by the school. The three teachers were from different places in Jiangsu Province before coming to Suzhou last year, among whom one is from Hubei Province, one  is  from  Nantong  and  the  third  one  is  from  Xuzhou,  which  is  a  city  in  the  northern  part  of Jiangsu Province. And the topic of the group interview mainly focuses on the comparison between the amount of students’ homework and the ways in which English exercises are evaluated before and  after  they  come  to  Suzhou.  Their  views  are  almost  identical.  They  think  on  the  whole,  the students in Suzhou seem to have a relatively small amount of homework, but the vast majority of parents make their children attend extracurricular tutoring classes at weekends or during vacation. In this case, students often have more exercises to finish in addition to the school exercise books, so the  pressure  on  students  is  not  small.  As  for  the  way  exercises  are  evaluated,  none  of  them  have ever  used  thinking  visualization  as  a  tool  in  English  exercises  evaluation  lessons.  The  main  way they use is question-and-answer form to explain the questions raised by the students in class. The overall English level of students in the present school in Suzhou is higher than that of the students they taught before, so the students do not have many problems and the progress of English exercises evaluation lessons is a little faster and smoother than before.
Figure5.1 Presentation of learning aims of daily consolidation exercises
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Chapter Six Conclusion

6.1 Major findings of the Study
Through nearly a year’s study, the answers to the three questions which the study intends to deal with at the beginning have been found. Based on the study results and discussions, the major findings can be explained in details from three aspects as follows.
6.1.1 Current Teaching Status of English Exercises Evaluation Lessons
The  current  teaching  status  of  English  exercises  evaluation  lessons  in  junior  high  schools  is unsatisfying, which can be seen from analysis of the interview and the first questionnaire results in chapter five together with the author’s rich teaching experiences.   
On one hand, although English exercises evaluation lesson is an important means for teachers to know about students’ mastery of knowledge and reflect on their own teaching behavior, many teachers don’t have proper realization of it. It is considered both the easiest and the most difficult lesson  to  give  in  the  view  of  many  teachers.  The  reason  why  they  think  it  easiest  is  that  in  their opinion  giving  lessons  of  this  kind  is  a  piece  of  cake  as  long  as  they  are  able  to  work  out  the exercises without difficulty before class. In particular, exercises in junior high school, whether for novice  teachers  who  have  just  graduated  or  experienced  old  teachers,  those  exercises  are  so  easy. The reason why it is thought the least easy is that it is difficult to see a teacher choose the class type of exercises evaluation in an open class. The reasons for their not choosing are as follows: First, it is difficult to innovate in the course of exercises evaluation; Second, in the process of evaluation, it is not easy to organize teaching in English through the whole class, especially the explanation of some grammar  knowledge  points.  Even  the  teacher  can  manage  it,  most  students  have  difficulty understanding  the  teacher;  Third,  the  classroom  atmosphere  of  exercises  evaluation  is  often  more dull than that of other types of classes. 
reference(omitted)

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